When you write for Citizen Network it is sometimes necessary to use references. References are particularly important if:
- The reader might be surprised by the claim you are making
- When you use a direct quote from someone
- When you want to encourage people to read an important book or article
However it is not good to have too many references. It makes the text hard to read and can discourage readers from reading your work. So only use references when really necessary.
The use of hyperlinks should be kept to a minimum. In work that are for printing then hyperlinks are redundant and messy. In works that are only for online publication hyperlinks often break when the original publisher makes changes their details. So only use hyperlinks if:
- In the references when there is no better way of defining the identity of the publication.
- To show respect to any organisation that has agreed to share information with the Centre.
- To reliable and regularly updated sources of information.
Creating a list of references
Citizen Network uses as style of referencing called Harvard, but with punctuation kept to a minimum.
All the texts that you refer to need to put in an alphabetic list of references using the following styles:
- Duffy S (2010) Personalisation in Mental Health. Sheffield: Centre for Welfare Reform
- Duffy S & Hyde C (2011) Women at the Centre. Sheffield: Centre for Welfare Reform
- Cowen A, Murray P & Duffy S (2011) Personalised Transition: a collaborative approach to funding individual budgets for young disabled people with complex needs leaving school. JOURNAL OF INTEGRATED CARE, Vol. 19 Iss: 2, pp. 30-36 doi: 10.5042/jic.2011.0158
- Lewis CS (1943) The Abolition of Man. Oxford: Oxford University Press
- Duffy S (2013a) Welfare Myth Three - The Poor Don't Pay Taxes Available from: http://www. huffingtonpost.co.uk/dr-simon-duffy/welfare-myth-poor-taxes_b_3053882.html [Accessed 30/08/14].
- UNCRPD (2006) United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
- Hinsliff G (2019) In praise of shame: how Trump and Johnson show we need it more than ever. The Guardian: 2 July 2019
- The Health and Social Care Act (2012) United Kingdom
Important things to remember include:
- The title of book should be capitalised by the normal Upper Case convention - regardless of style in original publication. Subtitles should be lower case.
- Editor becomes (ed) and editors (eds)
- 'Et al' is used without a stop
- The Belgians and Dutch use different conventions for surnames that begin De or Van. Belgians keep all elements capitalised and the first word is what counts; Dutch de-capitalize the initial words: so Jurgen De Wispelaere, but Robert van der Veen).
- Cowen A, Murray P & Duffy S (2011) Personalised Transition: a collaborative approach to funding individual budgets for young disabled people with complex needs leaving school. JOURNAL OF INTEGRATED CARE, Vol. 19 Iss: 2, pp. 30-36
Citing your reference in the body of the text
If you are simply referring to an important text, but not quoting from it then simply add the author's surname and year in brackets at the end of the relevant sentence. e.g. (Smith, 2010)
If you are quoting a text then you should also add the name of the text and the page number. Ideally quotes of any significant size will be followed by a full citation on a separate line. e.g. Duffy S (2010) Personalisation in Mental Health. p. 26
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